• Users Online: 646
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-10

Physiological adaptations of skeletal muscle and bone to resistance training and its applications in orthopedics: A review

1 Department of Orthopaedics, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Agra, India
2 Department of Orthopaedics, Government Medical College Firozabad, Firozabad, India
3 Department of Physiology, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Agra, India
4 Department of PMR, King George Medical College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Mayur Gupta
Department of Orthopaedics, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, 312/12A, Awas Vikas Colony, Sikandara, Agra 282007, Uttar Pradesh
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jbjd.jbjd_9_23

Rights and Permissions

Resistance training is defined as practicing the execution of different physical exercises that steadily upsurges the muscular force production for improving musculoskeletal strength, power, and endurance. It is of several types and utilizes specific equipment that provides gradational weight increases and can direct them toward the aimed muscle group. Physiological adaptations occur in muscles in response to increasing resistance at levels of muscle fibers and neuromuscular motor units. It increases the cross-sectional area of the individual muscle fiber causing muscle hypertrophy, which is expressed as increased diameter, thickness, and strength of the muscle. There is an increase in the number of motor units recruited, the firing rate of each motor unit during a maximal contraction, activation, and force generation by the muscle. Resistance training enhances bone mineral content and density. New bone formation occurs in areas experiencing mechanical strain that exceeds a minimum force level encountered in daily activities. Benefits of resistance training include significant improvements in general health, balance, coordination, physical vigor, and mental well-being. Functional gains occur in terms of boosted joint function and reduced potential for injury due to increased bone, muscle, tendon, and ligament strengths. It has been safely used across a multitude of disorders requiring physical therapy. It plays a credible role in the rehabilitation of orthopedics patients suffering from disabling musculoskeletal weakness after fracture treatment and chronic painful ailments such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, rotator cuff tendinopathy, and neck and low back pain. We here present a review of the varied musculoskeletal physiological adaptations seen in the human body in response to resistance training and its applications in orthopedics.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded70    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal